"Different ideologies underlie research methodologies. In other words, different research communities have opposing ideas about what knowledge is and how it is produced. Scholars produce scholarly knowledge by participating in the never-ending debate. Surveyors, scientists, formalists and most clinicians hope to produce positivistic knowledge. Ethnographers and some clinicians focus on producing postpositivistic knowledge."
This handout will provide a broad overview of gathering and using evidence. It will help you decide what counts as evidence, put evidence to work in your writing, and determine whether you have enough evidence. It will also offer links to additional resources.
An academic argues in favor of using Wikipedia for both teaching and research. In tone and organization, this article aims more for other academics than for students, but it's useful as a counterpoint to Brian Proffitt's agument that Wikipedia doesn't belong.
Research projects where students are asked to gather first-hand data are a common occurrence in first year writing courses (FYC). However, FYC students may struggle with the ethical and practical issues of collecting, analyzing, and writing about survey results, interviews, and observations. This chapter introduces definitions of research from an interdisciplinary perspective, examines ethical considerations, and compares the research process to the writing process. The chapter concludes with information about writing from primary research, including integrating research and creating visuals. Two student examples--a nutrition observation/survey project and a agricultural and biological engineering interview project--are provided to give students concrete examples.
Citing sources for an academic writing project can seem a bit like trying to hit a moving target—the rules keep changing (they’re more like guidelines anyway). Teaching citation can be especially difficult, then, given multiple styles necessary for multiple disciplines and the occasional style changes; however, what doesn’t seem to change is the need to know where information comes from. In this chapter, you and your students can explore citation as a rhetorical practice, one which does not always fit within the boundaries of traditional style guides but that nonetheless follows a logic that students can learn.
How do you, as a teacher, help students in the process of moving into the virtual library for their research needs, while respecting and understanding the information behaviors they practice and prefer? Growing up in the digital age, students often come to our first year writing courses with a rich and varied set of technological skills and information behaviors. They may already know how to search through multiple portals for information and interact through multiple devices and formats (Facebook & Twitter). Instead of prohibiting the use of certain information sources on the Web, such as Google and Wikipedia, this chapter proposes that teachers challenge students to merge their current information behaviors with traditional information literacy strategies; it includes suggestions for helping students meet that challenge.
"A friend who teaches at a well-known eastern university told me recently that plagiarism was turning him into a cop. He begins the semester collecting evidence, in the form of an in-class essay that gives him a sense of how well students think and write. He looks back at the samples later when students turn in papers that feature their own, less-than-perfect prose alongside expertly written passages lifted verbatim from the Web."
As a writing instructor, you want to help students reflect on and refine reading practices that are so crucial to writing and academic success. An examination of the elements of a rhetorical reading strategy—conceptualizing reading as part of an academic conversation, reading actively (and what this looks like), figuring out primary and secondary audiences, recognizing road maps embedded in the reading, and identifying the main argument and why it matters—make this chapter a powerful tool for starting classroom discussion and/or inspiring written reflection. This chapter can also help your students learn to recognize and avoid employing reading strategies that don’t work: reading without grasping content, skimming or skipping text, or latching onto one minor argument without understanding the author’s main point, or following every unfamiliar term, name, and phrase back to multiple sources.
The word annoying in the title of this chapter draws attention to the rhetorical nature of a writer’s choices when citing sources, emphasizing that readers may feel emotions like annoyance (or worse) when authors fail to cite in the ways expected by the audience. This chapter humorously describes poor decisions that academic writers can make when incorporating outside sources into their texts. You can help your students avoid “annoying” rhetorical behaviors with this chapter, a brief primer on citation conventions for the Modern Language Association style. Students will enjoy reading about each “annoyance,” illustrated through positive and negative examples designed to show both the most common ways that writers make these mistakes and practical ways to fix them.
A citation is a reference to a source of information. A citation typically includes enough identifying information, such as the author, title, publisher information, date of publication, database retrieved from, etc. for a reader to be able to locate a copy of the item.
Teaching students to write well with sources involves much more than teaching them to summarize, paraphrase, quote, and provide documentation. You can use this dialogue, in which a college student seeks writing advice about using sources from an online professor, to help students understand what it means to use sources thoughtfully, appropriately, and rhetorically. Four metaphors help you to articulate how students can work effectively with sources illuminating a different aspect of source-based writing: walking, talking, cooking, and eating. The walking metaphor captures how to find and document sources. The talking metaphor is a reminder that all sources are authored and connected through overlapping knowledge networks. The metaphor of cooking with sources describes how to analyze source-based assignments and integrate source materials. Finally, the eating metaphor explains the effects of using sources on one’s personal identity.
This handout provides definitions and examples of the two main types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. It also provides guidelines for constructing an abstract and general tips for you to keep in mind when drafting. Finally, it includes a few examples of abstracts broken down into their component parts.
This handout will explain why annotated bibliographies are useful for researchers, provide an explanation of what constitutes an annotation, describe various types of annotations and styles for writing them, and offer multiple examples of annotated bibliographies in the MLA, APA, and CBE/CSE styles of citation.
Open access book from Colorado State U Press. Publisher's description: "The Informed Writer, offered here in its first open-access edition, addresses a wide range of writing activites and genres, from summarizing and responding to sources to writing the research paper and writing about literature. This edition of the book has been adapted from the fifth edition, published in 1995 by Houghton Mifflin. Copyrighted materials—primarily examples within the text—have been removed from this edition."