DOIs (digital object identifier) typically begin with the number 10, and should always be preceded by https://doi.org/ in your works cited entry
URLS do not require http:// or https://, but the protocol may be included if you need it to create a clickable link (or hyperlink)
Not all URLs display www; copy the URL as displayed in the address bar
If an article provides a permalink (a stable, permanent, or persistent link) use that in your entry instead of the URL in the address bar
See pages 194-96 (sections 5.93-5.98) in the MLA Handbook for more on URLs, DOIs and permalinks
Author Last name, First name. Book Title. Publisher, Year of Publication, page or pages used unless entire book is being cited. Note that Book Title is italicized. Do not bold print.
Kurlansky, Mark. Salt: A World History. Penguin Books, 2003, pp. 46-49.
Author Last name, First name, and Author First Name, Last Name. Follow example above.
Welsch, Roger L. and Linda K. Welsch. Cather's Kitchens: Foodways in Literature and Life. U of Nebraska P, 1987.
Three or more authors
When there are three or more authors, use only the first author's last name and first name, followed by "et al." Follow example above.
Plag, Ingo, et al. Introduction to English Linguistics. Mouton, 2007.
Edited book, one editor
Editor Last name, First name, editor. Book Title. Publisher, Year of Publication.
Shell, Marc, editor. American Babel: Literatures of the United States from Abnaki to Zuni. Harvard UP, 2002.
Edited book, two editors
Editor Last name, First name, and Editor First name, Last name, editors. Book Title. Publisher, year.
Holland, Merlin, and Rupert Hart-Davis, editors. The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde. Henry Holt, 2000.
Edited book, three or more editors
Editor Last name, First name, et al., editors. Book Title. Publisher, Year.
Johnson, Norinne G. et al., editors. Beyond Appearance: A New Look at Adolescent Girls. American Psychological Association, 2001.
Chapter, essay, short story, or poem in an anthology or edited book
Author Last name, First name. "Title of Chapter, Essay, etc." Book Title, edited by Editor First Name, Last Name, Publisher, Year, pp.
Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery." Literature: Approaches to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama, edited by Robert DiYanni, McGraw Hill, 2008, pp. 409-415.
Introduction, foreword, preface, or afterword in an anthology or edited book
Author Last name, First name. "Title of Section (if available)." Name of Section. Book Title, edited by Editor's First name, Last name, Publisher, Year, pp.
DiYanni, Robert. "Literature: Reading, Writing, and Critical Thinking." Introduction. Literature: Approaches to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama, edited by DiYanni, McGraw Hill, 2008, pp. 1-23.
Entry in a reference book
Author Last name, First name. "Entry Title." Reference Book Title, edited by Editor First name Last name, Edition number (if available), volume number (if available), Publisher, Year.
Allen, Anita L. "Privacy in Health Care." Encyclopedia of Bioethics, edited by Stephen G. Post, 3rd. ed., vol. 4, Macmillan-Thomson, 2004.
If the entry is unsigned, begin with the entry title.
"Currency." Dictionary of Economic Terms, edited by Charles Rhodes, Random House, 2009.
eBook from a database
Author Last name, First name. Book Title. Publisher, Year of publication. Name of Database, permanent link or Digital Object Identifier (DOI), if available.
Nadler, Reldan S. Leading with Emotional Intelligence: Hands-on Strategies for Building Confident and Collaborative Star Performers. McGraw Hill, 2011. eBooks on EBSCOhost, ezjsrcc.vccs.edu:2048/login?login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=339122&site=ehost-live.
eBook from an e-reader
Author Last name, First name. Book Title. Publisher, Year of publication. Name of E-book Provider, URL for e-book.
Slawenski, Kenneth. J.D. Salinger: A Life. New York: Random House, 2011. Amazon.com,amzn.com/0812982592.