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Citation Style: MLA 9th Edition

Other resource type examples

DOIs, URLs & Permalinks:

  • DOIs (digital object identifier) typically begin with the number 10, and should always be preceded by in your works cited entry 
  • URLS do not require http:// or https://, but the protocol may be included if you need it to create a clickable link (or hyperlink)
  • Not all URLs display www; copy the URL as displayed in the address bar
  • If an article provides a permalink (a stable, permanent, or persistent link) use that in your entry instead of the URL in the address bar
  • See pages 194-96 (sections 5.93-5.98) in the MLA Handbook for more on URLs, DOIs and permalinks 
Digital Image

Creator's Last Name, First Name. "Title of the digital image." Title of the website. First name & last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable). Number (if applicable). Publisher, Publication date, URL.

Vasquez, Gary. Photograph of Coach K with Tem USA.  NBC Olympics, USA Today Sports, 5 Aug. 2016,

For more help in citing images, click here.

TV Show

"Episode Title." Series Title, season #, episode #, Network, Broadcast Date.

"Under the Gun." Pretty Little Liars, season 4, episode 6, ABC Family, 16 July 2013.

TV Show on the Web

"Episode Title."  Series Title, season #, episode #, Network, Broadcast Date. Name of Streaming Service,URL.

"Under the Gun." Pretty Little Liars, season 4, episode 6, ABC Family, 16 July 2013. Hulu,

Online video clip

Author name or Username. "Title of Video." Web Site Title, Date, URL.

Astley, Rick. "Never Gonna Give You Up." YouTube, 25 Oct. 2009,

Video/DVD recording

Film Title. Directed by Director's First name Last name, performance by main actor, name of distribution company, release date.

Ripley's Game. Directed by Liliana Cavani, performance by John Malkovitch, New Line Home Video, 2004.


Example of published interview:

Saro-Wiwa, Ken. "English Is the Hero." Interview with Diri I. Teilanyo. No Condition is Permanent: Nigerian Writing and the Struggle for Democracy, edited by Holger Ehling and Claus-Peter Holste-von Mutius, Rodopi, 2001, pp. 13-19.

Example of interview conducted by the researcher:

Walcott, Derek. Interview. By Susan Lang, 22 Oct. 2002.

Class handout or other unpublished document in print

Instructor's Last name, First name. "Document Title."  Year. Description of document.

Jackson, Jonas. "Midterm Review." 2016. Class handout.

Allen, Carrie. "Comma Usage." 2016. Class notes for ENG 101.

If there is no title, cite without it.

Thompson, Susan. Class handout. 2016.

Class material in Canvas

Instructor's Last name, First name. "Module or Week Number including the Title of the Lecture or Presentation." Course Name. Reynolds Canvas, upload by Instructor's Last name, main URL for Canvas. Type of material.

Smith, Mary. "Week 3: The Scientific Revolution." History 102, Reynolds Canvas, uploaded by Smith, PowerPoint presentation.

Digital file (PDF, Word file, MP3, etc.) not online

Author Last name, First name. "Document Title" (or description). Date. File format.

Hamilton, Grace. Lecture on Edgar Allan Poe. 2016. MP3.

Bible, Qur'an, and other holy works

Begin the citation with the title of the work. Optional: the name of the version can be recorded after the title.

The Holy Bible. Standard Version. Crossway-Good News, 2003.

The Qur'an: A New Translation. Translated by Abdel Haleem, Oxford UP, 2008.

Government report, print

Government Agency. Title of Report. Publisher, Date of Publication.

United States. Dept.of Labor. Child Care: A Workforce Issue. GPO, 1988.

Note: Many government reports are published by the Government Printing Office, abbreviated "GPO."

Government report, Web

Follow the example above, but add the website name and the source's URL.

United States. Dept. of State. Diplomatic List. GPO, Spring 2016. U.S. Dept. of State,