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Citation Style: MLA 9th Edition

Website examples

DOIs, URLs & Permalinks:

  • DOIs (digital object identifier) typically begin with the number 10, and should always be preceded by in your works cited entry 
  • URLS do not require http:// or https://, but the protocol may be included if you need it to create a clickable link (or hyperlink)
  • Not all URLs display www; copy the URL as displayed in the address bar
  • If an article provides a permalink (a stable, permanent, or persistent link) use that in your entry instead of the URL in the address bar
  • See pages 194-96 (sections 5.93-5.98) in the MLA Handbook for more on URLs, DOIs and permalinks 
Magazine article, open web

Author Last name, First name. "Article Title." Magazine Title, date of publication, URL.

Green, Joshua. "The Rove Presidency." The Atlantic, Sept. 2007,

Web page with author

Author Last name, First name. "Web Page Title." Web Site Title, date of publication, URL.

Bebinger, Martha. "Fentanyl-Linked Deaths: The U.S. Opioid Epidemic's Third Wave Begins." NPR, 21 Mar. 2019,

Web page, no author

If no author is provided, begin with the Web page title.

"Healthy Weight." Centers for Disease Control, 15 May 2015,

Tweet (Twitter Post)

Username. "Text of the Tweet." Twitter, Date, Time, URL.

@persianwiki. "We have report of large street battles in east & west of Tehran now - #Iranelection." Twitter, 23 June 2009, 11:15 a.m.,

Facebook status update/Facebook page

Author Last name, First name, or Username. "Title of Status Update or Facebook Page." FacebookDate of Publication, URL.

Pinker, Steven. "Timeline." Facebook, 2 Sept. 2011,

Gaiman, Neil. "Please Celebrate Leap Year in the Traditional Manner." Facebook, 29 Feb. 2012,

Discussion board post

Author Last name, First name, or Username. "Subject Line of Discussion Post." Web Site Title, Date of Publication, URL.

DePino, Logan. "My Board Game Rules." BoardGame Geek, June 6, 2016,