Skip to Main Content

Citation Style: APA 7th edition

Other resource type examples

Class material in Learning Management System (Canvas)

Author's Last Name, First & Middle initials if listed. (Date posted or published if available). Title of module, material or notes [Format type if applicable]. Name of learning management system at Name of College. College login (My Reynolds) URL

Woetzel, M.D. (2020, July 10). Module 5: Citing sources in APA  style. [Google Slides]. Canvas at Reynolds Community College.

For further information see APA Style - Classroom or Intranet Sources.


Last Name, First & Middle initials of Director/Producer/Host/Artist/etc. (Director/Producer/Host/Artist/etc.). (Year). Title of work [Film]. Production Company (or companies). URL if applicable

Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo's nest [Film]. United Artists.

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

TV Series

Last Name, First & Middle initials of Director/Producer/Host/Artist/etc. (Director/Producer/Host/Artist/etc.). (Year). Title of work [TV series]. Production Company. URL if applicable

Simon, D., Colesbury, R.F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown Deadline Productions, HBO.

TV series episode or webisode

Last name, First & Middle initials of writer(s) and director(s). (Year,month,date). Episode title (season and episode) [TV series episode]. In names of executive producers, Series title, Production Company (or companies).

Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Graff, A. Anderson, E.B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish. Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions, ABC Studios.

Oakley, B. (Writer), Weinstein, J. (Writer), & Lynch, J. (Director). (1995, May 21). Who shot Mr. Burns? (Part one) (Season 6, Episode 25) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J.L. Brooks, M. Groening, & S. Simon (Executive Producers), The Simpsons. Gracie Films; Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation.

Note: Include writers and the director for the episode. Include the contributor roles in parentheses after each contributor's name.

Streaming video (e.g., YouTube, Vimeo)

Author Last Name, First & Middle initials. [User Name]. (Year,month,date). Title of video [Video]. Site. URL

Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. Vimeo.

Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2016, September 20). How to diagram a sentence (absolute basics) [Video]. YouTube.

University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube.

Fosha, D. (Guest Expert), & Levenson, H. (Host). (2017). Accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (AEDP) supervision [Film]. American Psychological Association.

Note: For the sake of retrievability, the person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author, even if they did not create the work.


Songwriter F.M. (Copyright year). Song title [Recorded by F.M. Last (performer’s name/musical group)]. On Album title [Medium of recording]. City, State of label: Record label name.

Kakish, R. (2013). Never say quit [Recorded by Bobby Blackstone]. On Big people live fast [CD]. London, England: Happy Dog Music Company.

Podcast series

Author Last Name, First & Middle initials. (Role). (Years). Title of podcast [Type of podcast]. Site. URL

Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR.


  • List the host of the podcast as the author.
  • Specify the type of podcast (audio or video)
  • If the URL of the podcast is unknown (for example, when accessed via an app), simply omit that information.
Podcast episode

Author Last Name, First & Middle initials. (Role). (Year,month,date). Episode title (episode No.) [Podcast type]. In Title of podcast series. Site. URL

Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American life. WBEZ Chicago.


Author Last Name, First & Middle initials. (Year). Title of infographic [Infographic]. Site. URL

Rossman, J., & Palmer, R. (2015). Sorting through our space junk [Infographic]. World Science Festival.

Note: Use this format to cite content from an infographic. To reproduce an infographic, permission and/or a copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference.


Author Last Name, First & Middle initials. (Year). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Site. URL

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic.

Note: Use this format to cite photographs or other artwork not connected to a museum. To reproduce a photograph, permission and/or a copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference.

Clip art or stock image

Artist Last name, First & Middle initials. (Date, or n.d.). Name of clip art or stock image [Type of image]. Site. URL

Winn-Boujnida, C. (n.d.). White table lamp on gray end table [Stock photo]. Unsplash.

AnnaliseArt. (n.d.). Balloons [Clip art]. Pixabay.

Note: Use this format to cite (but not reproduce) most clip art or stock images. To reproduce clip art or stock images, permission and/or copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference. No citation, permission, or copyright attribution is necessary for clip art from programs like Microsoft Word or PowerPoint.

Artwork in a museum or on a museum website

Author Last Name, First & Middle initials. (Year). Title of work [Type of artwork]. Location where the art resides. URL if applicable.

Delacroix, E. (1826-1827). Faust attempts to seduce Marguerite [Lithograph]. The Louvre, Paris, France.

Wood, G. (1930). American gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, IL, United States.


  • Use this format to cite all types of museum artwork, including paintings, sculptures, photographs, prints, drawings, and installations; always include a description of the medium or format in square brackets after the title.
  • For untitled art, include a description in square brackets in place of a title.
Classical and religious works


  • Religious works (Bible, Qur'an, Torah, etc.), classical works (for example, ancient Greek and Roman works), and classical literature (for example, works by Shakespeare) are all cited like books.
  • Religious works are treated as having no author. An annotated version of a religious work would be treated as having an editor.
  • The year of publication of a religious work may be unknown or in dispute, and in these cases, the year is not part of the reference.
  • If the religious work has been republished, then the republished dates are included in the reference.

Aristotle. (1994). Poetics. (S.H. Butcher, Trans.). The Internet Classics Archive. (Original work published ca. 350 B.C.E.)

Shakespeare, W. (1995). Much ado about nothing (B.A. Mowat & P. Werstine, Eds.). Washington Square Press. (Original work published 1623)

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. (Original work published 1769)

Code of ethics

Group Author. (Year). Title. URL

American Counseling Association. (2014). 2014 ACA code of ethics.

American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements.

In-person or telephone interviews or conversations, letters, email, etc.

These types of communications are referenced in text but not cited in the References section.

T.K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2011) remarked that students should prepare well for an exam. 

It is important for the family to meet with the physician to discuss treatment options (V.G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998).

"Studying the material a little every day ensures better performance on exams" (M. Rutherford, personal communication, October 2, 2017).