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Citation Style: APA 7th edition

Citing indirect sources

An indirect source is when the ideas or direct quotes of the original author are published in another author’s work but you have not accessed and read the original source.

Whenever possible, find and use the source from the original author. You can ask a librarian for assistance in trying to locate the full text of the original source.

If the original source IS NOT AVAILABLE:

  • CITE BOTH the original author and the indirect/secondary author whose work you actually consulted IN THE TEXT of your paper.
  • Add as cited in in your PARENTHETICAL CITATION followed by the name of the indirect/secondary author whose work you actually consulted.
  • On your References page include ONLY the full citation for the indirect (secondary source).

In text citation examples - CITE BOTH the indirect/secondary source and original source:

Miller (1998, p. 241as cited in Agrios, 2005, p.57) found …

… as was found (Miller, 1998, p. 241, as cited in Agrios, 2005, p. 57).

References list citation example - CITE ONLY the indirect/secondary source:

Agrios, G.N. (2005). Plant pathology (5th ed.). Burlington, MA.: Elsevier Academic Press.