When you quote a source, you include the author's exact words in your text. Use "quotation marks" around the author's words. Include signal phrases and an in-text citation to show where the quote is from.
Paraphrasing & Summarizing Sources:
When you paraphrase or summarize a source, you restate the source's ideas in your own words and sentence structure. Select what is relevant to your topic, and restate only that. Changing only a few words is not sufficient in paraphrasing/ summarizing. Instead, you need to completely rephrase the author's ideas in your own words. You do not need to use quotation marks.
Always use in-text citations when you paraphrase or summarize, to let the reader know that the information comes from another source. Continue to use signal phrases as well.
Signal phrases let your reader know that you are quoting or summarizing from another source.
In the words of researchers Redelmeier and Tibshirani, " . . . "
As Matt Sundeen has noted, " . . . "
Patti Pena, mother of a child killed by a driver distracted by a cell phone, points out that " . . . "
" . . . " writes Christine Haughtney.
" . . . " claims wireless spokesperson Annette Jacobs.
Taken from the Bedford Handbook (583)
|Between 1968 and 1988, television coverage of presidential elections changed dramatically (Hallin 5).|
|Others, like Jakobson and Waugh (210-11), hold the opposite point of view.|
|The dystopian concept resonates deeply with readers (Rabkin, Greenberg, and Olander vii).|
|Northrop Frye considers Shakespeare's King Lear a "comedy of the grotesque" (Anatomy 237).|