When you quote a source, you include the author's exact words in your text. Use "quotation marks" around the author's words. Include signal phrases and an in-text citation to show where the quote is from.
Paraphrasing & Summarizing Sources:
When you paraphrase or summarize a source, you restate the source's ideas in your own words and sentence structure. Select what is relevant to your topic, and restate only that. Changing only a few words is not sufficient in paraphrasing/ summarizing. Instead, you need to completely rephrase the author's ideas in your own words. You do not need to use quotation marks.
Always use in-text citations when you paraphrase or summarize, to let the reader know that the information comes from another source. Continue to use signal phrases as well.
Signal phrases let your reader know that you are quoting or summarizing from another source.
In the words of researchers Redelmeier and Tibshirani, " . . . "
As Matt Sundeen has noted, " . . . "
Patti Pena, mother of a child killed by a driver distracted by a cell phone, points out that " . . . "
" . . . " writes Christine Haughtney.
" . . . " claims wireless spokesperson Annette Jacobs.
Taken from the Bedford Handbook (583)
What is an in-text citation?
In an in-text citation, the author's name appears in a sentence and not in parentheses. Please note that in MLA citing, page numbers (if available) usually go in parentheses. This is the same whether paraphrasing or quoting.
Andersen argued this point (27-32)
Mills wrote that "turnout was poor during the early morning hours" (109).
What is a parenthetical citation?
A parenthetical citation (also called "in reference") is one where the required information is placed in parentheses.
Only 17% of students agreed with the decision (Thomas 97).
During her second year as instructor, attendance "increased by leaps and bounds" (Gerou 21).
In-text/parenthetical citations and the works cited list
Please note that in-text and/or parenthetical citations must parallel the works cited entries. She the examples below -- parallel elements are in red.
|In-text/parenthetical citations||Works Cited|
|Garber writes that "dark chocolate hasn't had a glass of Merlot since it saw Sideways."||
Garber, Megan. "Milk Chocolate is Better than Dark, the End." The Atlantic, 27 Oct. 2016, www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2016/10/milk-chocolate-is-better-than-dark-chocolate-the-end/505511/.
|While chewing is normal and has health benefits for dogs, they need to be taught what they can chew and what they can't ("Destructive Chewing").||
"Destructive Chewing." ASPCA, www.aspca.org/pet-care/dog-care/common-dog-behavior-issues/destructive-chewing.
|Duckworth writes that cadets with high scores are as likely to drop out of West Point as cadets with low scores (6).||
Duckworth, Angela. Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance. Scribner,
|Between 1968 and 1988, television coverage of presidential elections changed dramatically (Hallin 5).|
|Others, like Jakobson and Waugh (210-11), hold the opposite point of view.|
|The dystopian concept resonates deeply with readers (Rabkin, Greenberg, and Olander vii).|
|Northrop Frye considers Shakespeare's King Lear a "comedy of the grotesque" (Anatomy 237).|