What is an in-text citation?
In an in-text citation, the author's name or title of the source (if no author) appears in a sentence and not in parentheses. In this case ONLY the page numbers (if available) are placed in parentheses. This is the same whether paraphrasing or quoting.
Andersen argued this point (27-32)
As highlighted in the pamphlet, Assisted Living Facilities in Virginia, "staff turnover has increased by 10% since 2019" (8).
What is a parenthetical citation?
A parenthetical citation (also called "in reference") the author's name or the title of the source (if no author) does not appear in a sentence. In this case BOTH the author or the abbreviated title of the work including page numbers (if available) are placed in parentheses.
Only 17% of students agreed with the decision (Thomas 97).
Most veterinarians agree that owners should ideally brush their dog's teeth twice a day (Dog Hygiene 12).
In-text/parenthetical citations and the works cited list
Please note that in-text and parenthetical citations must parallel the works cited entries. See the examples below -- parallel elements are in red.
|In-text/parenthetical citations||Works Cited|
|Garber writes that "dark chocolate hasn't had a glass of Merlot since it saw Sideways."||
Garber, Megan. "Milk Chocolate is Better than Dark, the End." The Atlantic, 27 Oct. 2016, www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2016/10/milk-chocolate-is-better-than-dark-chocolate-the-end/505511/.
|While chewing is normal and has health benefits for dogs, they need to be taught what they can chew and what they can't ("Destructive Chewing").||
"Destructive Chewing." ASPCA, www.aspca.org/pet-care/dog-care/common-dog-behavior-issues/destructive-chewing.
|Duckworth writes that cadets with high scores are as likely to drop out of West Point as cadets with low scores (6).||
Duckworth, Angela. Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance. Scribner,
|Between 1968 and 1988, television coverage of presidential elections changed dramatically (Hallin 5).|
|Others, like Jakobson and Waugh (210-11), hold the opposite point of view.|
|The dystopian concept resonates deeply with readers (Rabkin, Greenberg, and Olander vii).|
|Northrop Frye considers Shakespeare's King Lear a "comedy of the grotesque" (Anatomy 237).|