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Citation Style: MLA 9th Edition

Citing indirect sources

An indirect source is when the ideas or direct quotes of the original author are published in another author’s work but you have not accessed and read the original source.

Whenever possible, find and use the source from the original author. You can ask a librarian for assistance in trying to locate the full text of the original source.

If the original source IS NOT AVAILABLE:

  • Include citation information for BOTH the original author and the indirect/secondary author whose work you actually consulted IN THE TEXT of your paper.
  •  Add the abbreviation for quoted in -  qtd. in - in your PARENTHETICALL CITATION followed by the name of the indirect/secondary author whose work you actually consulted..
  • On your Works Cited page include ONLY the full citation for the indirect/secondary source.

In text citation example - CITE BOTH the indirect/secondary source and original source:

In her 2000 book, Left Back: A Century of Battles Over School ReformRavitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" (qtd. in Weisman 259).

Works Cited list citation example - CITE ONLY the indirect/secondary source:

Weisman, Daniel. "Academic Attitudes and Achievement in Students of Urban High Schools.” American Educational Research Journal, vol. 52, no. 4, Aug. 2019, pp. 256-278.